Hindi Grammar (हिन्दी व्याकरण) concepts with examples.

Hindi grammar covers various aspects such as nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and more. Let’s cover some basic concepts and rules for each of these:

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Hindi Grammar

Nouns (संज्ञा – Sangya):

Nouns in Hindi are classified into two genders: masculine (पुल्लिंग) and feminine (स्त्रीलिंग).

They also have different forms for singular and plural.

Pronouns (सर्वनाम – Sarvnaam):

Pronouns replace nouns and help avoid repetition. Common pronouns include ‘मैं’ (I), ‘तुम’ (You), ‘वह’ (He/She), etc.

Verbs (क्रिया – Kriya):

Hindi verbs change their forms based on the gender and number of the subject.

They also have different forms for tense (past, present, future) and aspects (simple, continuous, perfect).

Adjectives (विशेषण – Visheshaṇ):

Adjectives modify nouns. They agree with the gender and number of the noun they describe.

Adverbs (क्रिया विशेषण – Kriya Visheshaṇ):

Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. They provide information about how, when, where, etc.

Prepositions (सम्बंध सूचक – Sambandh Suchak):

Prepositions indicate relationships between words in a sentence. Common prepositions include ‘के पास’ (near), ‘के लिए’ (for), ‘में’ (in), etc.

Conjunctions (संयोजन – Sanyojan):

Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or clauses. Common conjunctions include ‘और’ (and), ‘या’ (or), ‘परंतु’ (but), etc.

Tense (काल – Kaal):

Hindi has three main tenses: past (भूतकाल), present (वर्तमानकाल), and future (भविष्यकाल).

Aspect (क्रिया के प्रकार – Kriya ke Prakar):

Hindi verbs can be classified into three aspects: simple (सामान्य), continuous (सतत), and perfect (पूर्ण).

Let’s go through each of the concepts with examples:

Certainly! Let’s go through each of the concepts with examples:

1. Nouns (संज्ञा – Sangya):

   – Nouns are names of people, places, things, or ideas. They can be masculine or feminine, and they have singular and plural forms.

     – Example: गाड़ी (car), लड़का (boy), बाल (hair).

2. Pronouns (सर्वनाम – Sarvnaam):

   – Pronouns replace nouns to avoid repetition. Common pronouns include ‘मैं’ (I), ‘तुम’ (You), ‘वह’ (He/She), etc.

     – Example: राज गोली खाए। वह बहुत बुरा है। (Raj got shot. He is very hurt.)

3. Verbs (क्रिया – Kriya):

   – Verbs are action words. They change forms based on the gender and number of the subject, as well as tense and aspect.

     – Example: खाना (to eat), लिखना (to write), पढ़ना (to read).

4. Adjectives (विशेषण – Visheshaṇ):

   – Adjectives modify nouns. They agree with the gender and number of the noun they describe.

     – Example: सुंदर फूल (beautiful flower), बड़ा घर (big house), नीला कमरबंद (blue waistband).

5. Adverbs (क्रिया विशेषण – Kriya Visheshaṇ):

   – Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. They provide information about how, when, where, etc.

     – Example: धीरे से बोलो (speak slowly), यहाँ बैठो (sit here), बहुत अच्छी तरह से (very well).

6. Prepositions (सम्बंध सूचक – Sambandh Suchak):

   – Prepositions indicate relationships between words. Common prepositions include ‘के पास’ (near), ‘के लिए’ (for), ‘में’ (in).

     – Example: टेबल पर किताब है (The book is on the table), मेरे बग़ल में (beside me).

7. Conjunctions (संयोजन – Sanyojan):

   – Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or clauses. Common conjunctions include ‘और’ (and), ‘या’ (or), ‘परंतु’ (but).

     – Example: राज और सीता आएंगे (Raj and Seeta will come), या तो खाओ या पीओ (either eat or drink).

8. Tense (काल – Kaal):

   – Hindi has past (भूतकाल), present (वर्तमानकाल), and future (भविष्यकाल) tenses.

     – Example: वह खाना खा रहा है (He is eating), मैंने किताब पढ़ी (I read the book).

9. Aspect (क्रिया के प्रकार – Kriya ke Prakar):

   – Hindi verbs can be simple (सामान्य), continuous (सतत), or perfect (पूर्ण).

     – Example: वह खाना खा रहा है (He is eating – continuous aspect), मैंने खाना खा लिया है (I have eaten – perfect aspect).

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